(Text to be updated)
In any project there are several important factors which determines it’s prospects for success or failure. In this article the attempt is to focus of the ‘P’ factors which fall in to this category.
- Past Experiences
(Abstract of article)
The ‘Clean India’ campaign launched by our Prime Minister Mr. Narendra Modi is surely a mission which was long overdue to be undertaken. The key to the successes of this campaign will be the cultural change which needs to be inculcated in to the minds of our people who never think twice before littering in the public places. It is required to develop a sense of responsibility in the minds of every individual to ensure that our country is kept clean and tidy in the same manner as they would like to keep their homes. This campaign is surely a right step in the right direction to propel our country’s march towards becoming a developed nation.
For the ‘Clean India’ campaign to be successful in all respect, it would be necessary for the authorities to focus on the elimination of causes which leads to an unclean India. It’s high time that we address the issue of lack of toilets in our country. The lack of proper waste management system too is a matter of concern. The lessons of personal hygiene and cleanliness needs to be taught to every individual and stringent rules and regulations are to be put in place by the government to punish those who are guilty of begriming and polluting our country.
While the ‘Clean India’ campaign would help us in making our country physically clean, a similar campaign needs to be launched by each citizen of India to clean our country from the other evils which are threatening to damage our society and the place we live. The most dangerous among them is the fire of communalism and terrorism that are being ignited in the minds of our people by religious and political groups who stand to get benefitted in vote politics by dividing the society. The incidents of communal violence and terrorist activities which were orchestrated by these anti social elements in recent past have scarred the social fabric of our country to such an extent that polarization created by it now threatens to live at large not only in the minds of people who were directly affected by it but also in the minds of the generations to come. The real act of cleaning India would be by eliminating the scars thus created and also socially eliminating the forces which were responsible for the creation of such scars.
Another evil which needs to be cleaned from our society is that of corruption and red tape that exists among the political and the bureaucratic fraternity. The cases of corruption which have been exposed by the media recently shows that our country is ahead in one area for sure – the art of corruption. Corruption has become a part of our social living and it seems to be accepted as a part of our culture. This thought and culture needs to be cleaned from the society before it derails our positive efforts to make India a developed country.
The real ‘Clean India’ also means that we eliminate the causes that pollute our nature and exploit our natural resources. An ideal ‘Clean India’ should also ensure that we have ‘Green India’. The authorities will have to get serious about the preservation of our nature and focus on the strict implementation of rules and regulations in this direction.
There are several other evils in our society which also needs to be cleaned on priority. It is the duty and responsibility of all Indians to play our part in the real clean up of India. Let’s launch ourselves in to this campaign to ‘Clean India’ in the real sense to ‘Save India’.
The image of Kerala – ‘God’s own country’ is under severe threat of being branded as the ‘God’s own dumping yard’. The most common sight while travelling around this beautiful state today is neither the coconut trees nor the greenery for which the state had been famous for. It is the heaps of waste and dirt that have been showered around at the road sides and back waters by the people of Kerala. The accumulation of waste in such proportion in densely populated areas should be seen as nothing less than a huge biological bomb which may explode to spread diseases and disease producing agents resulting in epidemics. The most important factors which have played a major role in the creation of such a dangerous and unhygienic situation in the state are the lack of adequate and efficient waste management facilities and the corrupt and laidback approach of the governments. A careful study about the waste management initiatives taken by the governments at all levels in the state would reveal that all the steps taken in this regard were not only short sighted but also plagued with the corrupt motives of the politicians and bureaucrats. It would be practical for the people to accept that no immediate magical solution could be expected from the authorities at this critical juncture and we will have to wait for at least a few more years to get a permanent solution for this problem. Therefore as responsible citizens, it is the duty of each individual to ensure that the generation of domestic waste originating from our homes are reduced to the best possible extend and are disposed at designated places. Each individual should actively participate in the collective efforts of the community to clean up our surroundings and thereby play our role in keeping our ‘God’s own country’ Green and Clean !!!
While there are many different philosophies of management, two of the most prominent ones are the Proactive and Reactive types of management. Proactive management involves planning in advance for a change or crises whereas reactive management involves the management actions initiated as a reaction to a change or crisis that has already occurred. According;y, a proactive manager is one who proactively capitalizes on the business opportunities and equally focuses on the advance identification and elimination of any risks that are likely to occur in the existing business while a Reactive Manager is the one who takes decisions and actions after the occurrence of a problem or an event.
Planning ahead for the future is essential for the existence and growth of any organization. The top management of the company should be proactive in defining its long-term and short-term goals and ensure that they are well aligned with the company’s strategic vision. They should be able to effectively hone the entrepreneurship skills of the employees to proactively develop the business opportunities and establish systems which shall promote proactive management practices in the day-to-day activities of the company.
The key element for establishing a proactive management system is the availability of required information. A proactive manager identifies the sources of information required for managing the business in a proactive manner and institutes mechanisms to ensure the availability of this information as required. For example, a proactive manager may gather the information required for business development through seminars, constructive engagements with existing customers, industry news letters etc. A proactive Project Manager may also employ appropriate tools and techniques to identify the risks in the business and implement the actions required to mitigate them.
A proactive manager remains open towards changes and practices change management techniques to implement changes which are needed for the sustenance and growth of the business. The very proactive nature of a manager to actively participate in the team tasks may inspire the team members to be more innovative and productive in their areas of work. A proactive manager understands the importance of development of employee skills and plans their enhancement in advance to meet the short-term and long-term goals of the company. In the case of project management, the actions taken by a company towards implementing a proactive project management approach shall increase the trust and confidence of the customer, which in turn shall translate in to better customer relationship and future business prospects. A proactive manager needs to have analytic skills and must be able to identify the strengths, weakness, opportunities and risks from the pattern of available information or data and implement methods to address each one of these areas so as to create a positive outcome.
Being a proactive manager does not mean that one has to exercise strict control on all the activities of the team. However necessary channels may have to be established to obtain the information required for proactive decision-making in a timely manner to facilitate appropriate management actions. Both proactive management and reactive management could be practiced separately or in a combined manner. The more we practice proactive management the lesser will be the losses and the requirement for reactive management. More often than not it is the practice of proactive management principles that gives better return for the company which explains the reason for this to be the preferred form of management for the present day organizations.
One of the most challenging tasks that a Project Manager needs to handle in most of the projects is conflict resolution. Conflict could be defined as some form of friction, disagreement, or discord arising within a group when the opinions or actions of one of more members of the group are either resisted by or unacceptable to one or more members of another group. Differing needs are often the main cause for conflicts in projects. Such conflicts in projects if not managed properly, may lead to bitter disputes resulting in failure of contracts, loss of profit, loss of valuable resources etc. An effective Project Manager recognizes legitimacy of conflicting needs and proactively engages in examining its causes and resolves them through creative problem solving and team building.
Project Management is an organized approach in getting things done with in a limited time, cost and resources. The main focus of a Project Manager shall be to deliver the project objectives in the most efficient manner by balancing the project constraints. A project shall involve several stakeholders with varying interest and expectations in the outcome of the project. An effective Project Manager is one who successfully delivers the project objectives and gain maximum mutual benefits to all the stakeholders. As the occurrence of conflicts in project are quite normal, it is very important for the Project Manager to be competent to manage these conflicts and adopt the best of the conflict resolution strategy which suits the situation.
Problem solving or Win-Win approach of conflict resolution is one of the most effective methods of conflict resolution which can be practiced by the Project Managers. This approach, also known as the confrontation, involves collaboration of the conflicting parties to reach an agreement which satisfies both the parties. This approach is most suitable for projects which involve a very important client with whom the business relation is strategic for the existence of the company. Adopting a win-win approach is by no means makes a Project Manager seem to be Mr. Nice who surrenders as soon as any conflict arises. In the case of a Win-win solution, both the parties emerge out of the conflict satisfied with agreement and may involve sacrifices and mutual gains. A Project Manager may adopt this method if the issue of conflict is absolutely critical to the success of the project and he have to invest heavily in terms of time, effort and cost.
The willingness of the conflicting parties to cooperate for a win-win solution is a key factor for the Project Manager to decide on adopting this approach. Win-win outcome for a conflict resolution could be achieved only if the issue is handled with an open mind and in a mature manner. Care should be taken to avoid any personal criticism and blame games. All parties involved should encourage and accept out of the box ideas which could lead to a mutually beneficial solution. The commitment of the conflicting parties to implement the win-win solution, devised through their collaborative efforts, is very important for the success of the project and therefore the Project Manager should take all necessary actions to ensure the same.
The collaborative win-win approach has emerged as the most preferred and widely accepted conflict resolution technique due to the advantages it presents towards ensuring the success of the projects. Win-win solutions not only results in the growth of knowledge and respect between the stakeholders but also leads the way for innovative approaches which could enhance the productivity and produce better project outcomes. Therefore it is advisable for the Project Managers to investigate the feasibility of a win-win solution in the case of any conflict situations that arises in the project and should strive to achieve it in the most effective manner by ensuring wholehearted collaborative efforts from the respective stakeholders.
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is a management concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and interactions with their stakeholders. CSR is generally understood as being the way through which a company achieves a balance of economic, environmental and social imperatives while at the same time addressing the expectations of shareholders and stakeholders (Ref: UNIDO).
Corporate Social Responsibility can be seen as a form of built-in self regulating mechanism integrated in to the business model by corporate entities to monitor and ensure its active compliance with the spirit of the law, ethical standards and international norms, and sometimes further some social good beyond the interest of the company and that which is required by the law. In today’s business world Corporate Social Responsibility is also seen as a path to win the trust of stakeholders which shall form the basis of a company’s sustainable growth. The community in which the company serves through its business is a key stakeholder and therefore any Corporate Social Responsibility activity which aids in supporting the community shall directly or indirectly lead to the strengthening the health of its market ecosystem.
Corporate Social Responsibility is associated with the impact of the activities of a company on the social, environmental and economical environment it operates. The necessity to demonstrate the CSR credentials of an organization is gradually emerging as an important criterion for making major business decisions.
CSR could be established by the corporate in many different ways. However in order to ensure that the CSR initiative produce the desired results, it is imperative to implement the CSR programs in a systematic manner. The CSR initiatives of a company shall be in alignment with its strategic vision and at the same time sensitive towards its business culture. The CSR concepts needs to be slowly but steadily interwoven in to the organizational policies and practices in a comprehensive manner so that the economical, social and environmental aspects are given due consideration for decision making at all levels across the organization.
Some of the most common methods of CSR implementation are CSR Value Creation, CSR Risk Management and CSR Social Contributions. CSR Value Creation is established through promoting innovations leading to sustainable business models which shall integrate the industry in to the community. CSR through Risk Management shall include the activities which lead to the better handling of risks through policy of risk elimination and avoidance and by establishing superior monitoring and control mechanisms to ensure strict adherence to the regulations pertaining to the environment and society. The initiative by companies across the world to reduce their carbon footprint is a step in this direction. The other alternative CSR methodology practiced by the corporate are by involving themselves in philanthropic activities and sponsorship linked to the betterment of the community.
Companies who have successfully integrated the CSR principles to their business models stand to benefit in various ways as compared to the companies which are yet to implement the CSR approach. The most visible advantage of implementing the CSR for the company is the improvement in its reputation and branding. It also promotes active stakeholder engagement and stronger bonding of the company with the community. CSR initiatives implemented towards the improving the quality of life of the employees of a company shall lead to better involvement leading to increase in productivity. The benefits of CSR are intangible on most of the occasions as it normally does not equate to material benefits, but are definitely convincing and strong enough to leave a positive impact on the business, society and the environment.